What is an in-text reference?
A parenthetical reference is a reference within the body of your paper to one of the sources listed in your Works Cited list. It indicates to your reader exactly what you derived from the source, and specifically where they can find it. You need to write a parenthetical, or "in-text" reference, whether you quote the material directly from the source, paraphrase it in your own words, or refer to an idea derived from the material.
Next to each reference you create in NoodleTools, you'll find a drop down box entitled "Options".
Click on "Options" and then choose "In-text reference":
This link will give you the "In-text reference" for your source or the information on how to create it. It will also provide a list of rules to follow for parenthetical references in general.
The parentheses are usually placed at the end of a sentence, between the last word and the period:
...the end of your sentence (Ballard 25).
If you are quoting material directly, the parentheses should go between the closing quotation mark and the period:
"The chicken came before the egg" (Smith 21).
In the essay below, sections have been highlighted in red and green only for the purpose of drawing your attention. Do not highlight or have your in-text reference in a different colour to the rest of your text.
In order to ensure that your reader knows where your started to use information from a particular source, you should consider naming the author of the source as has been done in this essay. Not only does it make it easier for your reader to understand where the information or ideas came from but it also adds weight to the argument.
Should We Use Stem Cells to Cure Diseases?
By Susan Merrick 13A
Our bodies have many different types of cells but most start as stem cells. According to Britannica, these stem cells have the information to develop into the different types of cells, such as muscle, nerve or blood cells. Scientists have found that they can use stem cells from human embryos to help people who have certain diseases, such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and diabetes. It further states that the research done with these embryos is of concern to people around the world because many see it as wrong to experiment on an embryo, which could have grown into a human being. Other people think that it is more important to find a cure for diseases (“Stem Cell”). I am unsure about the use of stem cell research.
In the National Parkinson’s Foundation publication, Stem Cell Research, it is explained that stem cells can come from embryos, or are made by cloning or copying cells. They can also come from adults. Stems cells from embryos can grow into all types of cells found in our bodies but those taken from adults are only found in small numbers and cannot grow into all the cell types (“Stem Cell Research” 1). The Britannica article confirms that scientists think that stem cells can be instructed to grow into whatever cell they would like, such as a liver cell. If they could grow enough and those cells were viable, then they could be transplanted into a person whose liver didn’t work properly (“Stem Cell”).
There is a lot that scientists do not understand about stem cells and so they are continuing their research. Anne Rooney in her book, Medicine: Stem Cells, Genes, and Super-beams, states that in some areas of medicine stem cell research has led to breakthroughs such as the first medical use of stem cells, in the treatment of leukemia using bone marrow (Rooney 11). For other diseases, the research continues. The National Parkinson’s Foundation publication reports that researchers hope to find a way of getting a stem cell to become a dopamine-producing cell. So far, they have not succeeded and it will probably be 5 to 10 years before trials using stem cells for Parkinson’s may take place (“Stem Cell Research” 2).
Rooney, Anne. Medicine: Stem Cells, Genes, and Super-beams. Oxford, Heinemann, 2006.
"Stem Cell." Britannica School, Oct. 2015, school.eb.co.uk/levels/intermediate/ article/544349. Accessed 27 Sept. 2016.
Stem Cell Research. National Parkinson's Foundation, 2008. National Parkinson's Foundation, www.parkinson.org/Search-Pages/Search.aspx? pKeywords=stem%20cell. Accessed 23 Sept. 2016.